This paper investigates the sectarian aspect of the Syrian revolution by perceiving sectarianism not as a constituent part of the revolution, but as one of its symptoms. It does so by examining the majority of sectarian manifestations during the Syrian revolution, whether primitive sectarian consciousness or sectarian violence (hate crimes, collective revenge, displacement, and kidnapping). The paper argues that sectarianism should be understood in light of existing socio-economic and political, not religious, circumstances, even if sectarian forces appeal to the religious factor in order to project a sectarian dimension on the struggle, painting it as a confrontation between “us and them”. This study is based on three research hypotheses emerging from a study of Syrian history: the role of economic factors in engendering a sectarian situation; the relationship between foreign colonial policies and the politicization of segmented identities and the role of local elites in confronting these policies; and the manifestations of the identity crisis in the Arab Mashreq amid the failure to establish the national state. Inequality in living standards is among the main factors that have led to the persistence of the power of mediating groups and traditional ethnic, sectarian, and tribal loyalties. Thus, understanding the sectarian question requires an in-depth look at questions of democracy, social justice, and Syrian national security.