Al- Ismaili approaches the issue of pluralism and its effect on the political and religious balance in Omani society, whether this be linguistic, religious and confessional pluralism, ethnic, or cultural and geographical pluralism. The paper sets the problem of pluralism in its historical and geographical contexts, and provides an anthropological account of the structures in a Gulf state that have been little studied. The research will contribute, as a preliminary attempt, to observe three forms of discourse, each of which tries to reformulate the socio-cultural components in Oman. First, the religious discourse, with its profound influence on the issue of religious tolerance in Oman, is the most dynamic of the socio-cultural discourses. The challenge of the convergence of forms of religious and confessional discourse in Oman is here discussed, as well as the extent to which the Sultanate is influenced by the sectarianism currently rampant in the Greater Middle East. Second is the cultural discourse in its contemporary modern form, even though this is not fully-fledged structurally, sociologically, or politically. Lastly, comes the political discourse, and how it consolidates the concept of pluralism in Omani society.