Dhweib examines the question of women from the perspective of the Islamist movement in Tunisia. Underlying this analysis is the belief that democracy, and by default democratic governments, should prioritize the protection of human rights in general, and women’s rights in particular, and work to promote equality between genders and the different social groups. Within this context, Dhweib examines the Tunisian Ennahda Movement’s stance regarding women, seeking to compare Ennahda’s intellectual and theoretical discourse with its political and pragmatic practices. The author first addresses polygamy, a point of contention among the Ennahda leaders, whose stances stood in contrast to the Tunisian personal status law and the reality of Tunisians on the ground. He then goes on to address Ennahda’s stance on the election of women as heads of state and the overall participation of women in political life. The rise of Islamists to power propels a comparison between their rhetoric and electoral promises, on the one hand, and their political practice, on the other. The Islamists’ stance toward women is particularly poignant in Tunisia, a country where women have achieved far more gains than most other Arab countries. Following an analysis of frames of reference and mechanisms adopted by Ennahda leaders, the author concludes that the Ennahda stance on women lacks coherence between theory and practice, indicating that their call for women to participate in political life may not be based on a genuine belief in equality between men and women or on the civil and political rights of women.